Sunday, March 15, 2020
The Life of Talcott Parsons and His Influence on Sociology Talcott Parsons is regarded by many as the twentieth centuryÃ¢â¬â¢s most influential American sociologist. He laid the foundation for what was to become the modern functionalist perspectiveÃ and developed a general theory for the study of society called action theory. He was born onÃ December 13, 1902, and he died on May 8, 1979, after suffering a major stroke. Early Life and Education of Talcott Parsons Talcott Parsons was born in Colorado Springs, Colorado. At the time, his father was a professor of English at Colorado College and vice-president of the college. Parsons studied biology, sociology, and philosophy as an undergraduate at Amherst College, receiving his BachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree in 1924. He then studied at the London School of Economics and later earned his Ph.D. in economics and sociology from the University of Heidelberg in Germany. Career and Later Life Parsons taught at Amherst College for one year during 1927. After that, he became an instructor at Harvard University in the Department of Economics. At the time, no sociology department existed at Harvard. In 1931, HarvardÃ¢â¬â¢s first sociology department was created and Parsons became one of the new departmentÃ¢â¬â¢s two instructors. He later became a full professor. In 1946, Parsons was instrumental in forming the Department of Social Relations at Harvard, which was an interdisciplinary department of sociology, anthropology, and psychology. Parsons served as the chairman of that new department. He retired from Harvard in 1973. However, he continued writing and teaching at Universities across the United States. Parsons is most well known as a sociologist, however, he also taught courses and made contributions to other fields, including economics, race relations, and anthropology. Most of his work focused on the concept of structural functionalism, which is the idea of analyzing society through a general theoretical system. Talcott Parsons played a major role in developing several important sociological theories. First, his theory of the sick role in medical sociology was developed in association with psychoanalysis. The sick role is a concept that concerns the social aspects of becoming ill and the privileges and obligations that come with it. Parsons also played a crucial role in the development of The Grand Theory, which was an attempt to integrate the different social sciences into one theoretical framework. His main goal was to utilize multiple social science disciplines to create one single universal theory of human relationships. Parsons was often accused of being ethnocentric (the belief that your society is better than the one you are studying). He was a bold and innovative sociologist for his time and is known for his contributions in functionalism and neo-evolutionism. He published more than 150 books and articles during his lifetime. Parsons married Helen Bancroft Walker in 1927 and together they had three children. Talcott Parsons Major Publications The Structure of Social Action (1937)The Social System (1951)Essays in Sociological Theory (1964)Societies: Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives (1966)Politics and Social Structure (1969) Sources Johnson, A.G. (2000). The Blackwell Dictionary of Sociology. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. Biography of Talcott Parsons. Accessed March 2012 from talcottparsons.com/biography
Friday, February 28, 2020
Assignment - Essay Example This gave me more chances to listen to other songs and become more critical about music. Moreover, my readings enabled me understand deeper what have been discussed and to discover other materials that are helpful in understanding harmony, melody and rhythm. I also learned to listen more carefully and become more observant about instrumentation. For instance, when I listen to a song, I try to identify the instruments used without looking at the performers. In this manner, I also learned to distinguish what instruments are vital and what could be a good combination of instruments that could be used to create beautiful melodies. I learned to become more observant not only in the music that I listen to but also on how musicians perform. Movements indeed are essential as it has been observed in most successful performers because body movements help to relate the message of the song to the listeners. Today, I am not just able to enjoy music but I also have the confidence to attempt to cre ate my own music with the understanding I have gained in the
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
SUPERMARKETS-GLOBAL BUSINESS ENVIROMENT - Essay Example Changes in the Business Environment With the competitive market environment today, there is a great influence of the changing business environment to the process and strategies with which a company or business is run. Business environment can be considered as the social or cultural environment in which the business is operated. It also comprises the internal factors which are penetrating within the business. The basic elements making the entire business environment can be the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s customers, competitors, employees, suppliers and other individual bodies which are directly influencing the business. Since supermarkets hold an essential place for almost everybody, therefore it is getting more popularity and expansion within people. With the passage of time, the number and range of people using services of supermarkets has also expanded to an enormous level, including both the high class and the middle or low class people (Richards, 2013). This has opened opportunities for sev eral small supermarkets to enter the business and acquire the market share of the big and leading enterprises. With the growing number of market entrants over the period of 2006- 2012 in the UK supermarkets, the business environment has become further intense and competitive. ... As the technology has prospered tremendously over the years, demands and expectations of consumers have also reached to a new level. Businesses can no more expect customerÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction by providing conventional services, which does not offer ease and benefit together to customers. For this reason, many of the supermarkets have expanded their range of products, to provide more stuff to customers under one roof (-Poitier, 2001). This idea has been incorporated by the Asda supermarket, which has enabled it to increase its overall sales, by opening more options for consumers. In this way, many customers coming to buy grocery are attracted towards furniture or household items, and this allows the business to make more sales (Ayushveda Business, 2009). The effect of globalization cannot be negated in this respect, as it has been one prime reason of the changes occurring in the business environment. A big difference in the supermarket of today, from what it is used to be some 15-20 years back, is the types and range of products they offers to their customers (Business Education, 2013). This depicts that there are emerging brands in various parts of the world, which are entering the global world. Therefore, the number of product suppliers for these supermarkets have increased to a large number, which has introduced the challenge of supplier satisfaction and proper channelling. All suppliers prefer the supermarkets that can give their product maximum hype and sales. Therefore, if a supermarket is just focusing of customerÃ¢â¬â¢s satisfaction, then it will soon lose the interest of new product suppliers, and they will certainly go for other retailing stores in the market (Experian, 2011). The change in the
Friday, January 31, 2020
Finance and Surplus Funds - Assignment Example Finance companies can facilitate Carlsons expansion by providing long-term loans to meet the company's fund requirement that is used to buy the long-term assets such as machinery, equipment, land and building. The funds provided by financial institutions are essential to finance the fixed assets procurement necessary for the expansion of the existing business or for totally a new line of business. Commercial Banks are depository institutions. Deficit units such as Carson are provided loans by commercial banks. Commercial banks have large assets generated by providing the deposit accounts to surplus units. The financial institutions look at financial leveraging of the firm such as debt ratio, debt-equity ratio, interest coverage, that decides companyÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to pay the interest and original debt over a long period of time. Obviously, that hinders Carson to access more debt funds for further expansion and growth. The primary market can support expansion program of Carson by absorbing their issued stocks and bonds to the common investors at the predetermined price. The money thus garnered falls under the category of equity or debt as the case may be and can be used to meet the expansion needs. The financial institutions work as financial intermediaries especially, when the market is imperfect. When the market is perfect, information is available free to buyer and seller and market settles at the lowest possible cost of funds discarding the need of any financial institutions for they cannot give any benefit to either buyer or seller. Every commercial bank would like to review the risk profile of the business and the company to whom they have provided the line of credit. Accordingly, it is quite obvious that in case of Carson undertaking any large expansion, commercial banks would like to know how the line of credit provided by them will be used and in what way the new expansion will alter the risk profile of the company. Banks would alsoÃ like to assess about how the expansion plan of Carson will affect the fund security and the ability of the Carson to pay them the due interest on the borrowed funds.
Thursday, January 23, 2020
Dealing With Disease in Uige, Angola Journal Entry for April 21, 2005 Yesterday, Angola's Ministry of Health announced that there have been 266 documented human infections of the Marburg epidemic since the current outbreak began in October of last year. 244 of these cases have been fatal, providing a horrific mortality rate which can be attributed both to the largely unknown and uncontrollable nature of this disease, and the impoverished state of the nation it is afflicting. Unfortunately, it took us five months from the first suspected cases of the outbreak to positively identify the cause as the Marburg virus. The region's medical facilities are severely overburdened and under-staffed due to the decades of civil war which have plagued Angola. So, when the epidemic began late last year early cases were mistaken for other more common diseases such as typhoid and malaria--which have similar symptoms to the Marburg virus. On the first symptomatic day, an infected person suffers from an extremely high fever. The extent of this fever quickly drains the individual of energy, leaving them in a weakened state. By the third day extremely watery diarrhea has begun which will last for a week if the infected is lucky enough to survive so long. The diarrhea also comes with intense abdominal cramps, nausea, and vomiting. The result is a patient left in a state of dehydration and excruciating pain, weakened and unable to clean the contaminated fluids he or she is expelling. Now having faced days of extreme fever and fatigue, the person resembles a corpse with an expressionless face, deep-set eyes and total lack of energy. Between the fifth and seventh days hemorrhages appear on the body, often open to bleeding. Additional blood is excreted in the individual's vomit and feces, as well as from the nose, and gums. This prevalence of contaminated bodily fluids has been part of the reason why reason the epidem ic has continued to spread despite our efforts to contain it. Death generally occurs within about two week of symptoms. There is no known cure, so the most our team can do for the infected is to keep their fluid levels high in order to counteract the effects of fever and diarrhea. The Marburg epidemic is a RNA virus of the filovirus family--whose only other known members are the four Ebola viruses.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Policies and procedures for promoting positive behaviour Policy/procedure |Summary | | | | | |Self esteem | | | | | |Valuing each childÃ¢â¬â¢s individuality, | | |Believing that children are capable of making choices, accepting responsibility and acting accordingly, | |Behaviour policy |Providing opportunities for success, | | |Viewing success in terms of personal progression rather than being in competition with others, | | |Praising achievements, | | |Promoting the acceptance of others, | | |Clearly demonstrating that we value their work, | | |Building into the curriculum activities which develop the childÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to express his/her feelings, through the sharing circle, co-operative games | | |and Drama. | | | | | |Physical environment | | | | |Attractive, comfortable well-resourced and well managed classrooms, | | |Displays of childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s work to show it is highly valued, | | |Tidy and accessible resources demonstrate that children are trusted to organis e themselves for work and that they know how to use and care for things. | | | | | | | | | | |Classroom management | | | | | |Work must be matched to their ability so that success is possible for all, | | |Children must know what they are doing and why, | | |Classroom rules are devised by children themselves to ensure standards of behaviour, | | |Rules should be few in number, prominently displayed and referred to often, | | |We must set high standards, praise quickly and consistently Ã¢â¬â looking out for and rewarding good behaviour, | | |We must be firm, fair and supportive, | |Know children as individuals, to be active listeners, to refer to the behaviour rather than the child, | | | | | |Be polite to everyone | |Code of conduct |Talk quietly and listen carefully | | |Always tell the truth | | |Treat others as you would wish them to treat you | | |Be patient and wait your turn | | | | |Rewards and sanctions |House points | | | | | |The children can earn house poi nts for:- | | | | | |Quality of work Good Behaviour | | |An excellent piece of work Being polite, etc. | |An improving piece of work | | | | | |Dinner Supervisors Stickers | | | | | |Dinner supervisors can award stickers for good behaviour during lunchtime. | | | | | | | |Barney Stickers | | | | | |This is Crooksbarn SchoolÃ¢â¬â¢s main method of rewarding positive behaviour. It is used by the class teacher throughout the school and indicates | | |excellent standards of work and/or behaviour by a child. Only 1 may be awarded each day, the children can wear them for 1 day then they are | | |transferred to a collecting chart displayed in the classroom.Once the child has succeeded in gaining 3 Ã¢â¬ËBarniesÃ¢â¬â¢ he/she is awarded a Ã¢â¬ËHead TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s| | |Barney that is presented by the Head Teacher at the whole school assembly on Monday Mornings. An additional award is given out by the Head Teacher to| | |any child who has gained 9 Ã¢â¬ËBarniesÃ¢â¬â¢ during the course of the school year | | | | | |Get rid of anyone not involved in the conflict as violence thrives on witnesses. | |DonÃ¢â¬â¢t put yourself at risk, alert colleagues, enlist their help. | |Dealing with conflict and inappropriate behaviour |Asses a situation first. | | |Be calm, donÃ¢â¬â¢t take it personally. | | |Use verbal intervention first. | | |It may be worse to add another person to a gang situation, if it cannot be sorted out and the conflict/inappropriate behaviour goes out of your | | |control call another member of staff and in the worse case scenario call the police. | | | | |Positively encourage the caring and nurturing side of children whilst openly and actively discourage bullying | | |Work for a caring, cooperative ethos (home corner, paired, group work etc. ) | |Anti-bullying |Discuss friendships Ã¢â¬â this should be covered through PSHE and citizenship scheme of work. However, children should receive regular reminders of this. | | |Ensure adequa te supervision in playgrounds. | |Value and encourage being different and having high self-esteem. | | | | | | | | |Helping to create a pattern of regular attendance is everybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility, parents, pupils and all members of school staff, | |Attendance |To help us focus on this we will report to arents/carers annually on their childÃ¢â¬â¢s attendance with the annual school report, | | |Contact the parent/carer if their childÃ¢â¬â¢s attendance falls below the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s target for attendance, | | |Celebrate good attendance by displaying individual and class achievements, | | |Reward good or improving attendance through class competitions, certificates and outings/events. | | |Every half-day absence from school has to be classified by the school (not the parents), as either AUTHORISED or UNAUTHORISED.This is why | | |information about the cause of any absence is always required, | | |Any periods of leave taken without the agreement of the school, or in excess of that agreed, will be classed as unauthorised and may attract sanctions| | |such as a Penalty Notice. | | |The minimum level of attendance for any child at Crooksbarn School is 90% attendance |
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, a mental health condition brought upon by a traumatic event occurring either to oneself or a loved one, is a result of a change or damage to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s natural fight-or-flight response. When a trauma victim comes across a trigger, they have a neurological response that forces their body to react as if they were still experiencing their original traumatic event. In an attempt to help trauma victims cope with PTSD, trigger warnings are commonly put into place to warn them of any content in the media they are about to consume that may be triggering. Over time the meaning of the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"trigger warningÃ¢â¬ has shifted from the actual neurological response to having a painful memory or a reminder of a traumaticÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is impossible to predict what may trigger any painful memories for the student as memories can be triggered by anything that is feasibly detected by any of the five senses. This makes it difficult for professors to know when it would be appropriate to have a trigger warning for upcoming assignments. With trigger warning policies in place, forgetting to place or misplacing a trigger warning would leave professors open to complaints from both trauma victims and students who claim to be offended by content simply to get out of completing the coursework, creating an unnecessary hassle for both parties involved (7 Humanities Professors 2014). The unpredictability of what may cause a trigger response leaves no room for error on the professorÃ¢â¬â¢s part to decide when and where to place trigger warnings. Furthermore, there is no evidence that trigger warnings are helpful since there is no way of knowing when or what may trigger a traumatic response. Oftentimes trigger warnings may even be counterproductive to the healing process of an individual by denying them an opportunity to confront the issue head-on and share their experience with others. If they are unable to talk with someone, they will remain victims to the trauma until they can have a place to talk through their experience. Policies force students to avoid their own traumatic experiences and enable universities to avoid the fact that the issue